четверг, 12 февраля 2009 г.

Postcard from Ukraine

Girls and young man in everyday clothing

Folk Clothing
The character of clothing was conditioned by natural and economic factors, national traditions, history and foreign influences. Clothing also underwent modifications within the boundaries of one territory depending on the material welfare of а person or а group of people, their social status. National traditions and social morals, as well as religious convictions set requirements to clothing for workdays and holidays, for а certain work or ritual and also depending on sex and age.
Certain elements of Ukrainian folk clothing were formed as early as in the Pre-princely period and in the Princely period. In the following period Ukrainian national clothing was taking its final form; that process was completed at the end of the Lithuanian-princely period of the Ukrainian history (XIV - beginning of XVII centuries). During the XVII - XVIII centuries the tradition developed and in the end of the XVIII - beginning of the XIX centuries resulted in creation of the type of clothing that now we call Ukrainian folk clothing, or in а wider sense - costume. Before the middle of the XIX century Ukrainian costume was finally formed in all ethnic lands. Manъs clothing complex mostly consisted of linen shirt and trousers, sleeveless jacket or vest, outerwear, belts or sashes, footwear, head-dress. Womanъs clothing complex, as well as manъs complex, included homespun shirt, waist clothing (zapaska - two-panelled skirt, with the front panel shorter, plakhta, skirt), belts or sashes, sleeveless jackets or vests, outerwear, head-dress, footwear and decorations. The most distinctive feature of clothing was its cut, except for its utilitarian and protective functions and the part of the body, which it covered. Lines of cut of Ukrainian clothing had for а long time been а way of artistic expressiveness. Those lines served not to hide but to underline. Attention was also paid to the way of wearing and adornment.
In the XIX century in all ethnic Ukrainian lands traditional folk clothing was preserved; it was formed into the ensemble complex called striy. The principle of striy formation was successive laying of clothing (underwear, waist clothing, shoulder clothing, outerwear, decorations, head-dress and other). But in spite of the settled common mental and ethical as well as artistic and aesthetic norms and rules of striy formation and wearing, in some localities distinctive peculiarities of clothing were observed; they marked out а region against the background of others. In this respect it is worth mentioning such regions as Naddnipryanshchyna Slobozhanshchyna, Prychornomorya, Kuban Polissya, Volyn Opillya Podillya, Bukovyna Pokuttya Gutsulshchyna Boikivshchyna, Lemkivshchyna, Zakarpattya Pidgirya.
Shirt. The shirt was made of polotno (homespun and home-woven linen or hemp cloth). At first the cut of manъs and womanъs shirts was the same. The older form of the menъs shirt was а slim line shirt (with "ustavka"), the more new one - not form-fitting. The first type can still be observed in remote regions of the Carpathians and Polissya. Local differences - band-collar or turn-down collar, sleeves with shirrs or loose sleeves. The manъs shirt was adorned with embroidery (ornamentation and stitches on the collar, breast and chokhly). The manъs shirt was worn outside, over trousers, or it was tucked into trousers. The first way was more ancient and originally Ukrainian, the second one was taken over from nomadic tribes.
The cut of the womanъs shirt was form-fitting (with "ustavka"). The collar could be band-collar, turn-down (Pravoberezhya) or absent - "on thread" (Livoberezhya, boundary western lands). In Zakarpattya an opening down the back could be found. The shirt was lavishly ornamented with embroidery. The sleeve (ustavka, morshchynka, polyk, pidplichya, chokhla and duda) was the most important part where embroidery was done, as well as the collar, the breast and the shirttail. In Polissya and Zakarpattya woven adornments were common, in Boikivshchyna and Pidgirya - shirring, in Pokuttya - ryasuvannya. The womanъs shirt was cut out of one piece of linen ("dodilno"), or "Do pidtochky" - the upper part was cut out separately. In Pidkartattya the lower part ("podolok") made of а more durable linen was sometimes completely separated.
In addition to those types of the cut one more very ancient cut is preserved - the Slavic type (now it can be found only in the Carpathians): sleeves cut out of one piece of linen and sewed in at the sides in а circle-like manner, and instead of the opening down the center front there was only а side slit between the sleeve and the top of the shirt.
Clothing for down-from-waist part of the body. One of the most important parts that accomplished the clothing was the belt, or а sash. It was а woven or plaited form worn over а shirt or outerwear. Belts were manufactured of multicolored woolen threads. Monochromatic (red) plaited belts are preserved only in Polissya. Silk belts have а Cossack origin. Leather belts (popruga, cheres, bukuriya) were most common in the mountains (they were necessary items for hard work in the forest). A belt of that type covered the part of body from underarm to hip; it was fastened with 4 clasps (now belts are far more narrower). Very often belts were open-worked and decorated with metal adornments. Everything that was necessary for work in the forest was fastened to those belts.
Trousers (gachi, gatsi, sharovary (baggy trousers), nogavytsi, porty, portky, portyanytsi) were sewn of durable polotno (homespun and home-woven linen or hemp cloth) for summer and of sukno (а heavy, thickly woven woolen fabric, with а felt finish on the right side) for winter. There were two types of cut: narrow trousers in those localities where the shirt was worn outside trousers and wide trousers where it was tucked into trousers. Depending on the place where gores were put there were two variants of narrow trousers cut (Polissya, Boikivshchyna). A waist seam of the linen trousers was finished with an "ochkur" (а lace stretched through upper bolt loop). In woolen cloth trousers at the waist а leather belt was stretched through loops.
Trousers were seldom and meagerly adorned. Gutsuls had decorative seams on linen trousers. People from Pidgirya and Boikivshchyna had pockets adorned with а narrow monochromatic (green as а rule) strip of embroidery (а more new tradition). In Pokuttya linen trousers were adorned with white hemstitch. In Lemkivshchyna woolen cloth trousers had colored lower part and metal buttons.
Womanъs waist clothing. The most ancient type of that clothing was а tetragonal woolen cloth; the woman wrapped herself up in it thus making her figure look longer. Types of that clothing were zapaska - а small (60*80sm.) quadrangle, which was girded with "strings" or "belt" only from behind (in Polissya), or from behind and from the front (in Gutsulshchyna). Derga or obgortka (gorbotka) - а big woolen cloth. Derga (in Livoberezhya) was sewn together from three pieces of narrow woolen towel (of а black color). Obgortka was woven as one multicolored stripped piece (90*60 sm.) (in Pokuttya and Bukovyna). The most gorgeous festive form of that clothing was plakhta; it consisted of two woolen towels ("gryvkas"), half sewn together. The plakhta was girded with а belt or kraika in such а way so that the sewn part wrapped the figure up and unsewn "kryla" (flaps) hung down at the sides. Weaving of the checked plakhta with а design of small quadrangles filled with pattern was widespread. Depending on ornament and pattern the plakhta was called "kartata" (checked), "rogatka", "synyatka", "kryzheva", "khreshchatka", "zakladyanka".
The zapaska - poperednytsya was worn over the obgortka or the plakhta. It had а pattern of cross strips or а checked pattern. It was shorter than the obgortka and it was often pleated. This article of clothing was not obligatory, especially when the obgortka was ornamented at the front. The zapaska was always worn with the plakhta, because the plakhta did not meet in the front. As а rule, for such occasions it was made of thin wool, and in the XX century - of silk (slightly embroidered).
Skirt (dymka, farban, katran, sharakhvakh, fartukh (apron), andaryk) was а garment of а more new type, but it came to Ukraine quite а long time ago. In the regions, where the shirt is worn up to "pidtochka", it replaced pidtochka. For festive occasions а decorated white skirt was worn, an on weekdays а "dymka" (а skirt made of patterned printed linen) was worn. The main decoration of the linen skirt was ryasuvannya. As well as widely embroidered lap (Boikivshchyna). In Volyn and Podillya а skirt of а checked red dyed linen was called "litnyk" (for wintertime "litnyks" were made of the same kind of wool). In Gutsulshchyna woolen skirts were woven with а pattern of lengthwise multicolored strips ("shortsa"), in Polissya they were made white with woven red patterns, in Kholmshchyna - cream-colored with а wide pattern on the lap ("burka"). A zapaska - poperednytsya (zapaska, fartushok (small apron), plat) or in other words - а piece of wide cloth decorated with embroidery at the lap was а necessary element for the skirt.
Womanъs clothing also included so-called "zavъyazky", "navoyi" and "zavoyi"; in Kovelshchyna and in some places of Galychyna they were used to wrap up legs up till ankles.
In Gutsulshchyna and Boikivshchyna women wore separate pants made of white cloth ("pokolinnytsi", "dokolinnytsi" (knee-long pants).
Head-dress was very diverse; that was accounted for by their dependence on the type of hairstyle. Men wore their hair around the head "in а gate-like way" or "Bracket-like way" (i.e with cut hair on the forehead over eyes), and also "Cut under pot" - even all around the head. In more ancient times а custom to wear shoulder-long hair was popular. In the XX century that custom was preserved only in the regions of Boikivshchyna, Pidgirya and Polissya. Cossacks and representatives of the Cossack class shaved their head and left only forelock, which they wound round the ear - that forelock was called "oseledets", or in other words - "herring".
Kapelyukh (hat), also called (bryl, krysan) was an article of summer headwear; it was made of straw. In winter felt and astrakhan shapkas (caps) were worn, as well as caps made of durable cloth - magerka (in Polissya and in the northern Volyn); their upper part was often of another color then the lower part. Fur caps (kuchmas) were made of black or gray astrakhan. There were also round caps with ear-laps (malakhay, klepanya, kabardynka), or horned caps with quadrangular bottom.
Girls were bareheaded. The type of their hairstyle was the same everywhere: the hair was separated in the middle and plaited into one or two braids. Sometimes women wound the braids around their head. Head decorations were widely spread. On weekdays women wore the opaska that supported the hair (а narrow strip of linen or а colored ribbon). Often ribbons were plaited into hair. The most ancient decoration for festive occasions in Gutsulshchyna was the chiltse made of bast and trimmed with linen and adorned with necklace, glass, feather or feather flowers. The chiltse also was made of several rows of brass plaques, their pendants fell down on the forehead. In Naddnipryanshchyna wreaths made of artificial flowers were widely spread. Wreaths had colored ribbons fixed from behind that fell down on the back.
The hairstyle of the married woman changed depending on the region: during the wedding girls had their hair cut up to the ear, or the hair fell freely on the back, or it was wrapped around the support - hoop (kybalka, kychka, khomevka), which was in fact the same girlъs chiltse. Over the hoop women tied zaviy or put on ochipok.
White zaviy (wrapping) (namitka, peremitka, serpanok, obrus, fatselyk, pivka) was the most ancient form of womanъs head covering. At first it was а 4-5 m long towel, which was tied up on the head in various ways. In addition to zaviys made of flex and hemp cloth or silk there were also woolen colored zaviys (Pokuttya), or white embroidered kerchiefs (Poltavshchyna). Namitka, even when it was out of use, was а garment worn on festive occasions and а ritual garment ("for death").
Ochipok (chepets, chipak), although it existed in Ukraine for quite а long time, was а more new form of headdress. The simplest ochipoks were made of linen with а net or open-work bottom, they had а slip from behind and were tied up after wrapping up the head and hair. There were а lot of variants of ochipoks, including those made of wool, silk, brocade.
In the new time that ancient headdress was displaced by patterned kerchief made of cotton, woolen or silk colored cloth. It was worn the same way as the zaviy, with certain local peculiarities.
Outerwear. The predecessor of outerwear variants was the vest, made of а bent piece of leather or cloth. In the mountains it was а fur vest - kyptar ("keptar"), which had different local peculiarities, mostly depending on its length (from belly to knees). Everywhere it was lavishly adorned with morocco, colored volychka, metal buttons. An ancient Cossackъs "kozhanka" - а waist-long leather sleeveless jacket, without collar, as а rule, corresponded to it.
Leibyk (leibycha, bruslyk, kamizelka) - а vest made of white- or brown colored cloth (Boikivshchyna, Pidgirъya, Opillya) and adorned with embroidery or colored lace. In Lemkivshchyna leibyks were of а blue color, decorated with buttons. In Volyn and Naddnipryanshchyna а vest of that kind was called "katanka". Manъs sleeveless leibyks were called "bundy", and leibyks with sleeves - "kurty".
Knee-long vests with added sleeves and laps - "verenchuk", "kabat", serdak or svyta were widely spread. Womanъs svytas were mostly white, manъs - gray and brown. Short womanъs svytas were also called "yupka".
Similar types of clothing or variants of svyta were chymlit and chymerka, spenser, kyrsetka, kaftanchyk, opancha, chuganya, manta, kobenyak or kyreya, shushpan, sukmana.
As winter fur clothing on the entire territory of Ukraine long-skirted kozhukhs (sheepskin coat) and short kozhushoks were widely spread. Their two variants were common: with а straight and detached back. A separate variant of the kozhukh can be considered а very long kozhukh, with wide laps broadened downwards with big gores. Sometimes kozhukhs were covered with cloth ("baibarak").
Footwear. Manъs and womanъs footwear had much in common. Legs were wrapped in onuchi (triangle pieces of linen or cloth). In winter "ustilky" (insoles) made of straw were put inside boots. Sometimes onuchi for а long time already looked like stockings, often woolen, adorned with embroidery in places close to tassels. Sometimes the most ancient type of footwear - lychaky, woven of withe, linden or sycamore bast (bark) could be observed. Postoly (khodaky) (bast shoes) were of а similar form, they were made of thick leather, with pointed toes; at the heel two ends met. Choboty (boots) were the most widely spread type of footwear from the ancient times. Womanъs boots had lower bootlegs (half calf-length), and their fronts were pointed and slightly turned upwards. Such type of womanъs footwear as cherevyky (shoes) originates from more new times. They were spread in the form of high laced shoes, which reminded the form of boots.
Adornments and decorations.
Among articles of clothing most often womanъs footwear was adorned (heels of boots and shoes - with metal nails or with needlework, boots for the most festive occasions were sewn of yellow or red leather). Manъs hats and caps were decorated with а narrow black or colored band, which circles the crown. In the southern Galychyna and in Bukovyna crowns were tied around with several bands and gerdans, lavishly decorated with feather and flowers.
Other manъs adornments were bands, shponkas, buttons, straps, small axes, sticks, kelefs, small crosses, tobivka, signet-rings etc.
Womanъs adornments were very diverse: kovtky (earrings), signet-rings, crosses, dukaches, bracelets. Namysto (necklace) was а traditional Ukrainian womanъs adornment. It consisted of several (or several dozens) rows of red or amber corals, supplemented with "dukaches" (golden or silver coins, or plates with relief images) and crosses. In Gutsulshchyna colored Venetian corals were common, as well as "zgarda", or in other words а type of necklace consisting of small brass crosses of delicate work, which had as а rule two or three rows. It is worth mentioning separately that there was also а "sylyanka" (gerdan, drabynka, ochko, luchka, galochka, pupchyky, lanka), or in other words, necklace woven out of small beads or glass-beads ("patsyorky") on а hair basis.

Анатолий, спасибо за чудесную открытку и прекрасные марки!!!

Culture of Ukraine
Ukrainian wedding traditions

1 комментарий:

  1. Beautiful postcards! I just started collecting postcards. I want to have a postcard from your country. Are you interested to exchange postcard with me?