пятница, 27 февраля 2009 г.

Postcard from USA

This United States has hundreds of lights as well as light towers, range lights, and pier head lights. Michigan has the most lights of any state with over 130. See also: Lightvessels in the United States, lightvessel, List of lighthouses and lightvessels

Most of the lights in the United States have been built and maintained by the Coast Guard since 1939, its predecessor the United States Lighthouse Service from 1910-1939 and its predecessor the United States Lighthouse Board from 1852-1910. Before the Lighthouse Board was established, local collectors of customs were responsible for lighthouses under Stephen Pleasonton. As their importance to navigation has declined and as public interest in them has increased, the Coast Guard has been handing over ownership and in some cases responsibility for running them to other parties, the chief of them being the National Park Service under the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act of 2000.

USCG's complete list of Virginia lights.

* Assateague Light, Assateague Island
* Back River Light, Chesapeake Bay near Hampton
* Bells Rock Light, York River
* Bowlers Rock Light, Rappahannock River
* Cape Charles Light, Cape Charles
* Cape Henry Light (old), Cape Henry, Virginia Beach
* Cape Henry Light (new), Cape Henry, Virginia Beach
* Cherrystone Bar Light, Cape Charles
* Chesapeake Light, entrance to Chesapeake Bay
* Craney Island Light, mouth of Elizabeth River
* Deepwater Shoals Light, James River
* Dutch Gap Canal Light
* Great Wicomico River Light, Chesapeake Bay
* Hog Island Light
* Jones Point Light, Alexandria
* Jordan Point Light, James River
* Killock Shoal Light
* Lambert Point Light, Norfolk
* Nansemond River Light, Nansemond and James rivers
* New Point Comfort Light, Chesapeake Bay
* Newport News Middle Ground Light, Newport News
* Old Plantation Flats Light, Cape Charles
* Old Point Comfort Light, Hampton
* Pages Rock Light, York River
* Point of Shoals Light, James River
* Pungoteague Creek Light, Chesapeake Bay
* Ragged Point Light, Potomac River
* Smith Point Light, mouth of Potomac River
* Stingray Point Light, mouth of Rappahannock River
* Tangier Sound Light, Chesapeake Bay
* Thimble Shoal Light, Chesapeake Bay, north of Hampton Roads
* Tue Marshes Light, mouth of York River
* Watts Island Light, Chesapeake Bay
* White Shoal Light, James River
* Windmill Point Light, mouth of Rappahannock River
* Wolf Trap Light, Chesapeake Bay
* York Spit Light, mouth of York River

Lighthouses in the United States

Postcards from Finland

The Sibelius Monument is dedicated to the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957). The monument is located at the Sibelius Park (Sibeliuspuisto) in the district of Töölö in Helsinki, the capital city of Finland.

The monument was designed by Eila Hiltunen and unveiled on September 7, 1967. Originally it sparked a lively debate about the merits and flaws of abstract art, for which reason an effigy of Sibelius was included in the work. It consists of series of more than 600 hollow steel pipes welded together in a wave-like pattern. The purpose of the artist was to capture the essence of the music of Sibelius. The monument weighs 24 tons and measures 8.5 × 10.5 × 8.5 meters.

A smaller version of the monument is located at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris. A work with a similar concept, also designed by Hiltunen, is located at the grounds of the United Nations headquarters in New York City.

Johan Julius Christian "Jean" / "Janne" Sibelius was a Finnish composer of the later Romantic period whose music played an important role in the formation of the Finnish national identity.

The core of Sibelius' oeuvre is his set of seven symphonies. Like Beethoven, Sibelius used each one to develop further his own personal compositional style. These works continue to be performed frequently in the concert hall and are often recorded.

In addition to the symphonies, Sibelius' best-known compositions include Finlandia, Valse Triste, the violin concerto, the Karelia Suite and The Swan of Tuonela (one of the four movements of the Lemminkäinen Suite). Other works include pieces inspired by the Kalevala, over 100 songs for voice and piano, incidental music for 13 plays, the opera Jungfrun i tornet (The Maiden in the Tower), chamber music, piano music, 21 separate publications of choral music, and Masonic ritual music. Sibelius composed prolifically until the mid-1920s. However, soon after completing his Seventh Symphony (1924), the incidental music to The Tempest (1926), and the tone poem Tapiola (1926), he produced no large scale works for the remaining thirty years of his life. Although he is reputed to have stopped composing, he did attempt to continue writing, including abortive attempts to compose an eighth symphony. He wrote some Masonic music and re-edited some earlier works during this last period of his life, and retained an active interest in new developments in music, although he did not always view modern music favorably.

Sibelius monument
Eila Hiltunen
Jean Sibelius

Postcard from Finland

Postcard from Belgium

Antwerpen is a city and municipality in Belgium and the capital of the Antwerp province in Flanders, one of Belgium's three regions.

Antwerpen has long been an important city in the nations of the Benelux both economically and culturally, especially before the Spanish Fury of the Dutch Revolt. It is located on the right bank of the river Scheldt, which is linked to the North Sea by the estuary Westerschelde.

Postcard from Germany

Frankfurt am Main is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany. The city is at the centre of the larger Frankfurt Rhine Main Region which has a population of 5.3 million and is Germany's second largest metropolitan area. A part of early Franconia, the inhabitants were the early Franks. The city is located on an ancient ford on the river Main, which is a shallow crossing. The German word is "Furt". Thus the city's name receives its legacy as being the "ford of the Franks".

Situated on the Main River, Frankfurt is the financial and transportation centre of Germany and the largest financial centre in continental Europe. It is the place of residence of the European Central Bank, the German Federal Bank, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and the Frankfurt Trade Fair, as well as several large commercial banks. Frankfurt International Airport is one of the world's busiest airports, Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest terminal stations in Europe, and the Frankfurter Kreuz (Autobahn interchange) is the most heavily used interchange in continental Europe. Frankfurt is the only German city listed as one of ten Alpha world cities. Frankfurt lies in the former American Occupation Zone of Germany, and it was formerly the headquarters city of the U.S. Army in Germany, but what is left of that organization has moved out of Frankfurt to some more remote location.

Frankfurt am Main

Postcard from USA

Centennial Olympic Park is a 21 acre (85,000 m²) public park located in downtown Atlanta, Georgia, USA that is owned and operated by the Georgia World Congress Center Authority. The park was built by the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games (ACOG) as part of the infrastructure improvements for the Centennial 1996 Summer Olympics. ACOG's chief executive, Billy Payne, conceived it as both a central gathering location for visitors and spectators during the Olympics and as a lasting legacy for the city.

Thanks Chris!

Centennial Olympic Park

Postcard from Great Britain

Spinnaker Tower, Portsmouth

Portsmouth city located in the county of Hampshire on the south coast of England. Portsmouth is the UK's only island city and is located on Portsea Island. It is commonly nicknamed Pompey.

A significant naval port for centuries, Portsmouth is home to the world's oldest dry dock still in use and home to many famous ships, including Nelson's flagship HMS Victory. Portsmouth has declined as a naval base in recent years but remains a major dockyard and base for the Royal Navy and Royal Marine Commandos whose Headquarters resides there. There is also a commercial port serving destinations on the continent for freight and passenger traffic.

The Spinnaker Tower is a high tower in Portsmouth, United Kingdom. It is the centrepiece of the redevelopment of Portsmouth Harbour, which was supported by a National Lottery grant. Its shape was chosen by Portsmouth residents from a selection of concepts. The tower, designed by local firm HGP Architects and the engineering consultants Scott Wilson and built by Mowlem, reflects Portsmouth's maritime history by being modeled after a sail. After several years of delays and cost overruns, it was opened on 18 October 2005.

The tower, at a height of 170 metres (558 feet) above sea level, is 2.5 times higher than Nelson's Column, making it the tallest accessible structure in the United Kingdom outside London. The tower is visible for miles around Portsmouth, changing the area's horizon.

The tower represents sails billowing in the wind, a design accomplished using two large, white, sweeping steel arcs, which give the tower its spinnaker sail design. The steelwork was fabricated by Butterley Engineering. At the top is a triple observation deck, providing a 320° view of the city of Portsmouth, the Langstone and Portsmouth harbours, and a viewing distance of 37 kilometres (23 miles). The highest of the three observation platforms, the crow's nest, has a wire mesh roof, allowing visitors to be in the elements. Windows extend to above head height, so it is not possible to get a view unobstructed by glass. The glass floor is the largest in Europe. The tower has a design lifetime of 80 years.

The design is similar to the Burj Al Arab in Dubai, whose structure is a little less than twice as tall at 321 m.

Spinnaker Tower

четверг, 26 февраля 2009 г.

New stamp

New stamp devoted to Yuriy Gagarin's 75th anniversary will be available since 6th March 2009.

Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin, Hero of the Soviet Union, was a Soviet cosmonaut. On 12 April 1961, he became the first human in space and the first to orbit the Earth. He received medals from around the world for his pioneering tour in outer space.

Yuri Gagarin

среда, 25 февраля 2009 г.

Postcard from USA

American Clock
This definitive stamp—a reissue of the 2003 stamp—features an artistic rendering of the dial, or face, of a banjo clock. Constructed of brass and steel, the banjo clock depicted on the stamp has a painted iron dial and a mahogany case crowned by a brass eagle. This elegant timepiece was made circa 1805 by Simon Willard (1753-1848) of Roxbury, Massachusetts. American Clock is the second stamp in the new American Design series.

Holiday Nutcrackers
On October 23, 2008, in New York, New York, the Postal Service™ issued a 42–cent, Holiday Nutcrackers special stamp in four designs, designed by Derry Noyes of Washington, DC.

Nutcrackers have been around for centuries. They range from simple utilitarian devices to elaborate collectibles, with a host of creations that fall somewhere in between.

During the winter holiday season, nutcrackers of all shapes and sizes are familiar sights in toy stores, on Christmas trees, on mantel pieces, on book and magazine covers, and in performance venues.

American Clock

среда, 18 февраля 2009 г.

Postcard from USA

Georgia College & State University (GCSU) is a public university in Milledgeville, Georgia with approximately 6,000 students. It was designated as Georgia's "Public Liberal Arts University" in 1996 by the Board of Regents, and is a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges.

The university places emphasis on providing the quality, values, and virtues of a private liberal arts colleges at a lower and more reasonable cost. Its "private university" approach includes a student to faculty ratio that averages 17 to 1.

Georgia College

Postcard from USA

Atlanta is the capital and the largest city in the U.S. state of Georgia. The Atlanta metropolitan area is the fastest growing area in the nation since 2000 when measured by numerical increase, is the central metropolis of the Southeastern United States, and is the largest metropolitan area in the emerging megalopolis known as the Piedmont Atlantic MegaRegion. Atlanta is the county seat of Fulton County, although a small portion of the city extends into DeKalb County. Residents of the city are known as Atlantans.

Atlanta's skyline is punctuated with highrise and midrise buildings of modern and postmodern vintage. Its tallest landmark – the Bank of America Plaza – is the 30th-tallest building in the world at 1,023 feet (312 m). It is also the tallest building in the United States outside of Chicago and New York City.
Midtown Atlanta

Unlike many other Southern cities such as Charleston, Savannah, and New Orleans, Atlanta chose not to retain its historic Old South architectural characteristics. Instead, Atlanta viewed itself as the leading city of a progressive "New South" and opted for expressive modern structures. Atlanta's skyline includes works by most major U.S. firms and some of the more prominent architects of the 20th century, including Michael Graves, Richard Meier, Renzo Piano, Pickard Chilton, and soon, Santiago Calatrava and David Chipperfield. Atlanta's most notable hometown architect may be John Portman whose creation of the atrium hotel beginning with the Hyatt Regency Atlanta (1967) made a significant mark on the hospitality sector. A graduate of Georgia Tech's College of Architecture, Portman's work reshaped downtown Atlanta with his designs for the Atlanta Merchandise Mart, Peachtree Center, the Westin Peachtree Plaza Hotel, and SunTrust Plaza. The city's highrises are clustered in three districts in the city — Downtown, Midtown, and Buckhead. The central business district, clustered around the Hyatt Regency Atlanta hotel – one of the tallest buildings in Atlanta at the time of its completion in 1967 – also includes the newer 191 Peachtree Tower, Westin Peachtree Plaza, SunTrust Plaza, Georgia-Pacific Tower, and the buildings of Peachtree Center. Midtown Atlanta, farther north, developed rapidly after the completion of One Atlantic Center in 1987.

Thanks Amy!


вторник, 17 февраля 2009 г.

Postcard from Germany

Bad Oeynhausen is a spa town in the Minden-Lübbecke district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Bad Oeynhausen is located on the banks of the Weser river, which runs along the eastern edges of the town. Bad Oeynhausen has the world's highest carbonated, thermal saltwater fountain, the Jordan Sprudel (or the Jordansprudel). On calm days the fountain gets up to 40 meters high. The water of the spring is believed to have many medicinal qualities, giving rise to a number of health spas.

Bad Oeynhausen


The postcard with shot from Mikhail Aldashin's cartoon "Christmas"

Fyodor Khitruk's works exhibition

Fyodor Khitruk's (most famous Russian animator) exhibition taked place from January 21 to February 15th 2009. I wish to show you a postcards made from shots of his works.

Fyodor Savelyevich Khitruk is one of the most influential animators and animation directors in Russian animation. He was born in Tver.

Khitruk came to Moscow to study graphic design at the OGIS College for Applied Arts. He graduated in 1936 and started to work with Soyuzmultfilm in 1938 as an animator. From 1962 onwards, he worked as a director. His first film Story of A Crime was an immense success. Today, this film is seen as the beginning of a renaissance of Soviet animation after a two-decade-long life in the shadows of Socialist realism.

Diverging from the “naturalistic” Disney-like canons that were reigning in the 1950-60s in Soviet animated cartoons, he created his own style, which was laconic yet multi-level, non-trivial and vivid.

He is the director of outstanding “adult” films such as the social satire of bureaucrats Chelovek v ramke (Man in the Frame) (1966), the philosophic parable Ostrov (Island) (1973) about the loneliness of a man in modern society, the biographical film Junger Mann namens Engels - Ein Portrait in Briefen, Ein (1970), based on drawings and letters of young Engels, the parody Film, film, film (1968), and the anti-war film Lev i byk (A Lion and a Bull) (1984).

During his long career, he was awarded innumerable awards by all major film festivals. Today, Fyodor Khitruk lives in Moscow.

In April 1993, Khitruk and three other leading animators (Yuriy Norshteyn, Andrey Khrzhanovsky, and Eduard Nazarov) founded the Animation School and Studio (SHAR Studio) in Russia. The Russian Cinema Committee is among the share-holders of the studio.

In 2008, he released a two-volume book titled The Profession of Animation («Профессия – аниматор»).


* Story of a Crime (История одного преступления, 1962)
* Toptyzhka (Топтыжка, 1964)
* Boniface's Holiday (Каникулы Бонифация, 1965)
* Man in the Frame (Человек в рамке, 1966)
* Othello 67 (Отелло-67, 1967)
* Film, Film, Film (Фильм, фильм, фильм, 1968)
* Winnie-the-Pooh (Винни-Пух, 1969)
* The Young Friedrich Engels (Юноша Фридрих Энгельс, 1970)
* Winnie-the-Pooh Goes on a Visit (Винни-Пух идет в гости, 1971)
* Winnie-the-Pooh and the Day of Concern (Винни-Пух и день забот, 1972)
* Island (Остров, 1973)
* I Grant You A Star (Дарю тебе звезду, 1974)
* Icarus and the Wise Men (Икар и мудрецы, 1976)
* Olympians (Олимпионики, 1982)
* Lion and Ox (Лев и бык, 1983)

Fyodor Khitruk

Aerogram and postcard from Malaysia

An Aerogram or Air Letter, also called an aérogramme, is a thin lightweight piece of foldable and gummed paper for writing a letter for transit via airmail, in which the letter and envelope are one and the same. Most postal administrations forbid enclosures in these light letters, which are usually sent abroad at a preferential rate.

The aerogram was largely popularised by its use during the Second World War (1939-45), after Lieutenant Colonel R. E. Evans, Royal Engineers, Assistant Director Army Postal Service Middle East Force (MEF), proposed that a lightweight self-sealing letter card that weighed only 1/10 oz be adopted by the British Army for air mail purposes. He recommended its use to Sir Anthony Eden, the Secretary of State for War during his visit to the Middle East, in late 1940. By January the following year, General Archibald Percival Wavell, the Commander-in-Chief, MEF was told by Eden that "Your Assistant Director Army Postal Services may forthwith introduce an Air Mail Letter Card Service for the Middle East. Use British stamps from all countries, including Egypt."

On 1 March 1941, the air mail service between the Middle East and the UK was started, using a combination of Imperial Airways seaplanes and military transport. The private nature of the air letter ensured its popularity among its users and that popularity, with its lightness, brought about its continued use as today's civilian air letter (aerograms) and the British military "bluey".

The production of United States aerograms has ceased, and when the stock of aerograms has been depleted, including the current USPS 60¢ Voyageurs National Park aerogram that is still on sale, it will not be reprinted.

The majority of aerograms have a pre-paid indicia, except New Zealand, Rhodesia and Ireland and many more countries, which sold, or sell, unstamped aerograms. The unstamped aerograms are referred to as 'formular aerograms'. They can be issued by either postal authorities or by private companies. Senders are required to write their name and address on the reverse.

Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the largest city of Malaysia. The city proper, making up an area of 244 km2 (94 sq mi), has an estimated population of 1.6 million in 2006. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million.It is the fastest growing metropolitan region in the country, in terms of population as well as economy.

Kuala Lumpur is the seat of the Parliament of Malaysia, making it the country's legislative capital. The city was once home to the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but they have since moved to Putrajaya starting in 1999.Some sections of the judiciary remain in the capital. The official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara, is also situated in Kuala Lumpur. The city is also the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia due to its position as the capital as well as being a primate city. Kuala Lumpur is rated as a gamma world city, and is the only global city in Malaysia.

Kuala Lumpur is defined within the borders of the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and is one of three Malaysian Federal Territories. It is an enclave within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Residents of the city are known as KLites.

Beginning in the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting, political and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the Formula One World Championship. In addition, Kuala Lumpur is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Twin Towers.

Thanks Khor Kok Keong

About Aerogram
Kuala Lumpur

Postcard from France

The Eiffel Tower is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. The tower has become a global icon of France and is one of the most recognizable structures in the world.

Named after its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, the Eiffel Tower is the tallest building in Paris. More than 200,000,000 people have visited the tower since its construction in 1889, including 6,719,200 in 2006, making it the most visited paid monument in the world. Including the 24 m (79 ft) antenna, the structure is 324 m (1,063 ft) high (since 2000), which is equivalent to about 81 levels in a conventional building.

When the tower was completed in 1889 it was the world's tallest tower — a title it retained until 1930 when New York City's Chrysler Building (319 m — 1,047 ft tall) was completed. The tower is now the fifth-tallest structure in France and the tallest structure in Paris, with the second-tallest being the Tour Montparnasse (210 m — 689 ft), although that will soon be surpassed by Tour AXA (225.11 m — 738.36 ft).

The metal structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tonnes while the entire structure including non-metal components is approximately 10,000 tonnes. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm (7 in) because of thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun. The tower also sways 6–7 cm (2–3 in) in the wind. As demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7300 tonnes of the metal structure were melted down it would fill the 125 meter square base to a depth of only 6 cm (2.36 in), assuming a density of the metal to be 7.8 tonnes per cubic meter. The tower has a mass less than the mass of the air contained in a cylinder of the same dimensions, that is 324 meters high and 88.3 meters in radius. The weight of the tower is 10,100 tonnes compared to 10,265 tonnes of air.

The first and second levels are accessible by stairways and lifts. A ticket booth at the south tower base sells tickets to access the stairs which begin at that location. At the first platform the stairs continue up from the east tower and the third level summit is only accessible by lift. From the first or second platform the stairs are open for anyone to ascend or descend regardless of whether they have purchased a lift ticket or stair ticket. The actual count of stairs includes 9 steps to the ticket booth at the base, 328 steps to the first level, 340 steps to the second level and 18 steps to the lift platform on the second level. When exiting the lift at the third level there are 15 more steps to ascend to the upper observation platform. The step count is printed periodically on the side of the stairs to give an indication of progress of ascent. The majority of the ascent allows for an unhindered view of the area directly beneath and around the tower although some short stretches of the stairway are enclosed.

Maintenance of the tower includes applying 50 to 60 tonnes of paint every seven years to protect it from rust. In order to maintain a uniform appearance to an observer on the ground, three separate colors of paint are used on the tower, with the darkest on the bottom and the lightest at the top. On occasion the colour of the paint is changed; the tower is currently painted a shade of brownish-grey. On the first floor there are interactive consoles hosting a poll for the colour to use for a future session of painting. The co-architects of the Eiffel Tower are Emile Nouguier, Maurice Koechlin and Stephen Sauvestre.

Eiffel Tower replica in the Parizh village, in Russia

Parizh is a village on the south border of Nagaybaksky District in Chelyabinsk Oblast of Russia. It started as a Nağaybäk Cossack settlement in 1842 and soon afterwards was given a name to honor the Battle of Paris. Other notable local settlement names marking Russian victories in Napoleonic Wars include Fershampenuaz, the district's administrative center, and Berlin.

In 2005, an Eiffel Tower replica was constructed in Parizh to serve as a cellular network station.

Thanks Stephane!!!

Eiffel Tower

суббота, 14 февраля 2009 г.

Cover and postcard from Russia, Saint Petersburg

On this cover you can see one of the monuments from «The Horse Tamers» compozition located on Anichkov Bridge.

The Anichkov Bridge (Russian: Аничков мост, Anichkov Most) is the first and most famous bridge across the Fontanka River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The current bridge, built in 1841-42 and reconstructed in 1906-08, combines a simple form with some spectacular decorations. As well as its four famous horse sculptures (1849-50), the bridge has some of the most celebrated ornate iron railings in Saint Petersburg. The structure is mentioned in the works of Pushkin, Gogol, and Dostoevsky.

The first bridge was built in 1715-16 by order of Peter the Great, and named after its engineer, Mikhail Anichkov. The bridge was made of wood with several spans built on piles of supports lying just above the Fontanka River. Nothing remains of this first bridge.

As the city grew and river traffic increased, plans were unveiled in 1721 to create a new drawbridge. The Anichkov Bridge was one of seven three-span stone drawbridges with towers built across the Fontanka River in the late 18th century, of which the Lomonosov Bridge and the Stary Kalinkin Bridge are the two still extant. At that time, the Anichkov Bridge was an especially popular attraction on Nevsky Prospekt, as well as a popular subject for illustrations and paintings.

By the 1840s the 18th-century design, especially its large towers, was deemed unsuitable for the growing amount of traffic passing over the Anichkov Bridge along Nevsky Prospekt. In 1841-42 a grander structure, more appropriate to the width of Nevsky Prospekt, was built on the site under the supervision of Lt. General A. D. Gotman. The new bridge was made of stone, and had three spans closed off with gently sloping arches. This simple, concise form corresponded well with the massive cast-iron fencing bordering Anichkov Bridge and mermaid cast-iron railings, originally designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel for the Palace Bridge in Berlin. However, the bridge's stone arches were a continual source of problems, and in 1906-08 the bridge had once again to be reconstructed and its arches reinforced.

==The Horse Tamers== The Horse Tamers, designed by the Russian sculptor, Baron Peter Klodt von Urgensburg. They rank among the city's most recognizable landmarks. The theme derives from the colossal Roman marbles, often identified with the Dioscuri, prominently sited on the Quirinal Hill, Rome. Guillaume Coustou's baroque marble horse tamers for Marly-le-Roi, the Chevaux de Marly, were resited at the opening to the Champs-Elysées, Paris, at the Revolution.

The St Petersburg sculptures have an interesting history. Prior to 1851, when the definitive versions were installed in the bridge, Tsar Nicholas I had given two of them to Prussian King Frederick William IV in 1842, and the other two had been sent in 1846 to Naples as a sign of gratitude for the hospitality shown to the Tsar during his trip there (see here and here). "Petersburg lore tells of Peter Klodt's death immediately upon embarrassing discovery that tongues had been omitted on two of the four sculptural horses"[1]. Another urban legend has it that Klodt depicted his powerful enemy's face under the tail of one of the bronze stallions.

In 1941, during the Second World War, when the bridge came under heavy fire from German artillery, the sculptures were removed from their platforms and buried in the nearby Anichkov Palace garden. The bridge suffered serious damage during the war, but has been fully restored. As a memorial, the pedestal of one of the statues retains the effects of artillery fire, with a plaque explaining this to passersby. Prior to the tercentenary of Saint Petersburg, the statues were removed from the bridge again and underwent thorough restoration.

The Yeliseyev Brothers Trade House

Elisseeff Emporium in St. Petersburg is a large retail and entertainment complex constructed in 1902-1903 for the Elisseeff Brothers.Located at 56 Nevsky Prospekt, the complex consists of three buildings although the corner one is the structure that is referred to as Elisseeff’s store or shop (Елисеевский магазин). Designed by architect Gabriel Baranovskii (Baranovsky, Baranowski, Гавриил Васильевич Барановский), it is one of most striking examples of St. Petersburg Art Nouveau architecture although at the time of its construction the building was considered controversial.

The architect managed to incorporate some parts of older buildings in this structure, made the entire building appear as if it were one giant shop window. Over one half of the façade consists of a single arch. The arch is a giant stained glass window that opens several floors to the street. The Art Nouveau stained glass contrasts with granite surface of the building adorned by allegorical sculptures of Commerce, Industry, Science and Arts by Amandus Adamson.

Inside there were three large retail halls. Above ready clothing and general retail space, bank, public commercial courses (college level business classes funded by Elisseeff and open to general public), and a performance theater. The theater is still there albeit its lavish Art Nouveau interiors were destroyed in a 1960s renovation. Underneath the building were walk-in and drive-in coolers and refrigerator rooms for storage of provisions and some of Europe’s best wine cellars.

The hall on the lower floor has one of the best preserved Art Nouveau interiors in the city.

Anichkov Bridge
Eliseyev Emporium

пятница, 13 февраля 2009 г.

Postcard from Germany

Neuschwanstein Castle is a 19th-century Bavarian palace on a rugged hill near Hohenschwangau and Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany. The palace was commissioned by Ludwig II of Bavaria as a retreat and as an homage to Richard Wagner, the King's inspiring muse. Although public photography of the interior is not permitted, it is the most photographed building in Germany and is one of the country's most popular tourist destinations.

Ludwig did not allow visitors to his castles, but after his death in 1886 the castle was opened to the public (in part due to the need to pay off the debts Ludwig incurred financing its construction). Since that time over 50 million people have visited the Neuschwanstein Castle. About 1.3 million people visit annually, with up to 6,000 per day in the summer. The palace has appeared in several movies, and was the inspiration for Sleeping Beauty Castle at both Disneyland Park and Hong Kong Disneyland and for the Cinderella Castles at the Magic Kingdom and Tokyo Disneyland.

The palace is owned by the state of Bavaria, unlike nearby Hohenschwangau Castle, which is owned by the head of the house of Wittelsbach, currently Franz, Duke of Bavaria. The Free State of Bavaria has spent more than €14.5 million on Neuschwanstein's maintenance, renovation and visitor services since 1990.


Postcards from Australia

Postcard from USA

четверг, 12 февраля 2009 г.

Postcard from Ukraine

Girls and young man in everyday clothing

Folk Clothing
The character of clothing was conditioned by natural and economic factors, national traditions, history and foreign influences. Clothing also underwent modifications within the boundaries of one territory depending on the material welfare of а person or а group of people, their social status. National traditions and social morals, as well as religious convictions set requirements to clothing for workdays and holidays, for а certain work or ritual and also depending on sex and age.
Certain elements of Ukrainian folk clothing were formed as early as in the Pre-princely period and in the Princely period. In the following period Ukrainian national clothing was taking its final form; that process was completed at the end of the Lithuanian-princely period of the Ukrainian history (XIV - beginning of XVII centuries). During the XVII - XVIII centuries the tradition developed and in the end of the XVIII - beginning of the XIX centuries resulted in creation of the type of clothing that now we call Ukrainian folk clothing, or in а wider sense - costume. Before the middle of the XIX century Ukrainian costume was finally formed in all ethnic lands. Manъs clothing complex mostly consisted of linen shirt and trousers, sleeveless jacket or vest, outerwear, belts or sashes, footwear, head-dress. Womanъs clothing complex, as well as manъs complex, included homespun shirt, waist clothing (zapaska - two-panelled skirt, with the front panel shorter, plakhta, skirt), belts or sashes, sleeveless jackets or vests, outerwear, head-dress, footwear and decorations. The most distinctive feature of clothing was its cut, except for its utilitarian and protective functions and the part of the body, which it covered. Lines of cut of Ukrainian clothing had for а long time been а way of artistic expressiveness. Those lines served not to hide but to underline. Attention was also paid to the way of wearing and adornment.
In the XIX century in all ethnic Ukrainian lands traditional folk clothing was preserved; it was formed into the ensemble complex called striy. The principle of striy formation was successive laying of clothing (underwear, waist clothing, shoulder clothing, outerwear, decorations, head-dress and other). But in spite of the settled common mental and ethical as well as artistic and aesthetic norms and rules of striy formation and wearing, in some localities distinctive peculiarities of clothing were observed; they marked out а region against the background of others. In this respect it is worth mentioning such regions as Naddnipryanshchyna Slobozhanshchyna, Prychornomorya, Kuban Polissya, Volyn Opillya Podillya, Bukovyna Pokuttya Gutsulshchyna Boikivshchyna, Lemkivshchyna, Zakarpattya Pidgirya.
Shirt. The shirt was made of polotno (homespun and home-woven linen or hemp cloth). At first the cut of manъs and womanъs shirts was the same. The older form of the menъs shirt was а slim line shirt (with "ustavka"), the more new one - not form-fitting. The first type can still be observed in remote regions of the Carpathians and Polissya. Local differences - band-collar or turn-down collar, sleeves with shirrs or loose sleeves. The manъs shirt was adorned with embroidery (ornamentation and stitches on the collar, breast and chokhly). The manъs shirt was worn outside, over trousers, or it was tucked into trousers. The first way was more ancient and originally Ukrainian, the second one was taken over from nomadic tribes.
The cut of the womanъs shirt was form-fitting (with "ustavka"). The collar could be band-collar, turn-down (Pravoberezhya) or absent - "on thread" (Livoberezhya, boundary western lands). In Zakarpattya an opening down the back could be found. The shirt was lavishly ornamented with embroidery. The sleeve (ustavka, morshchynka, polyk, pidplichya, chokhla and duda) was the most important part where embroidery was done, as well as the collar, the breast and the shirttail. In Polissya and Zakarpattya woven adornments were common, in Boikivshchyna and Pidgirya - shirring, in Pokuttya - ryasuvannya. The womanъs shirt was cut out of one piece of linen ("dodilno"), or "Do pidtochky" - the upper part was cut out separately. In Pidkartattya the lower part ("podolok") made of а more durable linen was sometimes completely separated.
In addition to those types of the cut one more very ancient cut is preserved - the Slavic type (now it can be found only in the Carpathians): sleeves cut out of one piece of linen and sewed in at the sides in а circle-like manner, and instead of the opening down the center front there was only а side slit between the sleeve and the top of the shirt.
Clothing for down-from-waist part of the body. One of the most important parts that accomplished the clothing was the belt, or а sash. It was а woven or plaited form worn over а shirt or outerwear. Belts were manufactured of multicolored woolen threads. Monochromatic (red) plaited belts are preserved only in Polissya. Silk belts have а Cossack origin. Leather belts (popruga, cheres, bukuriya) were most common in the mountains (they were necessary items for hard work in the forest). A belt of that type covered the part of body from underarm to hip; it was fastened with 4 clasps (now belts are far more narrower). Very often belts were open-worked and decorated with metal adornments. Everything that was necessary for work in the forest was fastened to those belts.
Trousers (gachi, gatsi, sharovary (baggy trousers), nogavytsi, porty, portky, portyanytsi) were sewn of durable polotno (homespun and home-woven linen or hemp cloth) for summer and of sukno (а heavy, thickly woven woolen fabric, with а felt finish on the right side) for winter. There were two types of cut: narrow trousers in those localities where the shirt was worn outside trousers and wide trousers where it was tucked into trousers. Depending on the place where gores were put there were two variants of narrow trousers cut (Polissya, Boikivshchyna). A waist seam of the linen trousers was finished with an "ochkur" (а lace stretched through upper bolt loop). In woolen cloth trousers at the waist а leather belt was stretched through loops.
Trousers were seldom and meagerly adorned. Gutsuls had decorative seams on linen trousers. People from Pidgirya and Boikivshchyna had pockets adorned with а narrow monochromatic (green as а rule) strip of embroidery (а more new tradition). In Pokuttya linen trousers were adorned with white hemstitch. In Lemkivshchyna woolen cloth trousers had colored lower part and metal buttons.
Womanъs waist clothing. The most ancient type of that clothing was а tetragonal woolen cloth; the woman wrapped herself up in it thus making her figure look longer. Types of that clothing were zapaska - а small (60*80sm.) quadrangle, which was girded with "strings" or "belt" only from behind (in Polissya), or from behind and from the front (in Gutsulshchyna). Derga or obgortka (gorbotka) - а big woolen cloth. Derga (in Livoberezhya) was sewn together from three pieces of narrow woolen towel (of а black color). Obgortka was woven as one multicolored stripped piece (90*60 sm.) (in Pokuttya and Bukovyna). The most gorgeous festive form of that clothing was plakhta; it consisted of two woolen towels ("gryvkas"), half sewn together. The plakhta was girded with а belt or kraika in such а way so that the sewn part wrapped the figure up and unsewn "kryla" (flaps) hung down at the sides. Weaving of the checked plakhta with а design of small quadrangles filled with pattern was widespread. Depending on ornament and pattern the plakhta was called "kartata" (checked), "rogatka", "synyatka", "kryzheva", "khreshchatka", "zakladyanka".
The zapaska - poperednytsya was worn over the obgortka or the plakhta. It had а pattern of cross strips or а checked pattern. It was shorter than the obgortka and it was often pleated. This article of clothing was not obligatory, especially when the obgortka was ornamented at the front. The zapaska was always worn with the plakhta, because the plakhta did not meet in the front. As а rule, for such occasions it was made of thin wool, and in the XX century - of silk (slightly embroidered).
Skirt (dymka, farban, katran, sharakhvakh, fartukh (apron), andaryk) was а garment of а more new type, but it came to Ukraine quite а long time ago. In the regions, where the shirt is worn up to "pidtochka", it replaced pidtochka. For festive occasions а decorated white skirt was worn, an on weekdays а "dymka" (а skirt made of patterned printed linen) was worn. The main decoration of the linen skirt was ryasuvannya. As well as widely embroidered lap (Boikivshchyna). In Volyn and Podillya а skirt of а checked red dyed linen was called "litnyk" (for wintertime "litnyks" were made of the same kind of wool). In Gutsulshchyna woolen skirts were woven with а pattern of lengthwise multicolored strips ("shortsa"), in Polissya they were made white with woven red patterns, in Kholmshchyna - cream-colored with а wide pattern on the lap ("burka"). A zapaska - poperednytsya (zapaska, fartushok (small apron), plat) or in other words - а piece of wide cloth decorated with embroidery at the lap was а necessary element for the skirt.
Womanъs clothing also included so-called "zavъyazky", "navoyi" and "zavoyi"; in Kovelshchyna and in some places of Galychyna they were used to wrap up legs up till ankles.
In Gutsulshchyna and Boikivshchyna women wore separate pants made of white cloth ("pokolinnytsi", "dokolinnytsi" (knee-long pants).
Head-dress was very diverse; that was accounted for by their dependence on the type of hairstyle. Men wore their hair around the head "in а gate-like way" or "Bracket-like way" (i.e with cut hair on the forehead over eyes), and also "Cut under pot" - even all around the head. In more ancient times а custom to wear shoulder-long hair was popular. In the XX century that custom was preserved only in the regions of Boikivshchyna, Pidgirya and Polissya. Cossacks and representatives of the Cossack class shaved their head and left only forelock, which they wound round the ear - that forelock was called "oseledets", or in other words - "herring".
Kapelyukh (hat), also called (bryl, krysan) was an article of summer headwear; it was made of straw. In winter felt and astrakhan shapkas (caps) were worn, as well as caps made of durable cloth - magerka (in Polissya and in the northern Volyn); their upper part was often of another color then the lower part. Fur caps (kuchmas) were made of black or gray astrakhan. There were also round caps with ear-laps (malakhay, klepanya, kabardynka), or horned caps with quadrangular bottom.
Girls were bareheaded. The type of their hairstyle was the same everywhere: the hair was separated in the middle and plaited into one or two braids. Sometimes women wound the braids around their head. Head decorations were widely spread. On weekdays women wore the opaska that supported the hair (а narrow strip of linen or а colored ribbon). Often ribbons were plaited into hair. The most ancient decoration for festive occasions in Gutsulshchyna was the chiltse made of bast and trimmed with linen and adorned with necklace, glass, feather or feather flowers. The chiltse also was made of several rows of brass plaques, their pendants fell down on the forehead. In Naddnipryanshchyna wreaths made of artificial flowers were widely spread. Wreaths had colored ribbons fixed from behind that fell down on the back.
The hairstyle of the married woman changed depending on the region: during the wedding girls had their hair cut up to the ear, or the hair fell freely on the back, or it was wrapped around the support - hoop (kybalka, kychka, khomevka), which was in fact the same girlъs chiltse. Over the hoop women tied zaviy or put on ochipok.
White zaviy (wrapping) (namitka, peremitka, serpanok, obrus, fatselyk, pivka) was the most ancient form of womanъs head covering. At first it was а 4-5 m long towel, which was tied up on the head in various ways. In addition to zaviys made of flex and hemp cloth or silk there were also woolen colored zaviys (Pokuttya), or white embroidered kerchiefs (Poltavshchyna). Namitka, even when it was out of use, was а garment worn on festive occasions and а ritual garment ("for death").
Ochipok (chepets, chipak), although it existed in Ukraine for quite а long time, was а more new form of headdress. The simplest ochipoks were made of linen with а net or open-work bottom, they had а slip from behind and were tied up after wrapping up the head and hair. There were а lot of variants of ochipoks, including those made of wool, silk, brocade.
In the new time that ancient headdress was displaced by patterned kerchief made of cotton, woolen or silk colored cloth. It was worn the same way as the zaviy, with certain local peculiarities.
Outerwear. The predecessor of outerwear variants was the vest, made of а bent piece of leather or cloth. In the mountains it was а fur vest - kyptar ("keptar"), which had different local peculiarities, mostly depending on its length (from belly to knees). Everywhere it was lavishly adorned with morocco, colored volychka, metal buttons. An ancient Cossackъs "kozhanka" - а waist-long leather sleeveless jacket, without collar, as а rule, corresponded to it.
Leibyk (leibycha, bruslyk, kamizelka) - а vest made of white- or brown colored cloth (Boikivshchyna, Pidgirъya, Opillya) and adorned with embroidery or colored lace. In Lemkivshchyna leibyks were of а blue color, decorated with buttons. In Volyn and Naddnipryanshchyna а vest of that kind was called "katanka". Manъs sleeveless leibyks were called "bundy", and leibyks with sleeves - "kurty".
Knee-long vests with added sleeves and laps - "verenchuk", "kabat", serdak or svyta were widely spread. Womanъs svytas were mostly white, manъs - gray and brown. Short womanъs svytas were also called "yupka".
Similar types of clothing or variants of svyta were chymlit and chymerka, spenser, kyrsetka, kaftanchyk, opancha, chuganya, manta, kobenyak or kyreya, shushpan, sukmana.
As winter fur clothing on the entire territory of Ukraine long-skirted kozhukhs (sheepskin coat) and short kozhushoks were widely spread. Their two variants were common: with а straight and detached back. A separate variant of the kozhukh can be considered а very long kozhukh, with wide laps broadened downwards with big gores. Sometimes kozhukhs were covered with cloth ("baibarak").
Footwear. Manъs and womanъs footwear had much in common. Legs were wrapped in onuchi (triangle pieces of linen or cloth). In winter "ustilky" (insoles) made of straw were put inside boots. Sometimes onuchi for а long time already looked like stockings, often woolen, adorned with embroidery in places close to tassels. Sometimes the most ancient type of footwear - lychaky, woven of withe, linden or sycamore bast (bark) could be observed. Postoly (khodaky) (bast shoes) were of а similar form, they were made of thick leather, with pointed toes; at the heel two ends met. Choboty (boots) were the most widely spread type of footwear from the ancient times. Womanъs boots had lower bootlegs (half calf-length), and their fronts were pointed and slightly turned upwards. Such type of womanъs footwear as cherevyky (shoes) originates from more new times. They were spread in the form of high laced shoes, which reminded the form of boots.
Adornments and decorations.
Among articles of clothing most often womanъs footwear was adorned (heels of boots and shoes - with metal nails or with needlework, boots for the most festive occasions were sewn of yellow or red leather). Manъs hats and caps were decorated with а narrow black or colored band, which circles the crown. In the southern Galychyna and in Bukovyna crowns were tied around with several bands and gerdans, lavishly decorated with feather and flowers.
Other manъs adornments were bands, shponkas, buttons, straps, small axes, sticks, kelefs, small crosses, tobivka, signet-rings etc.
Womanъs adornments were very diverse: kovtky (earrings), signet-rings, crosses, dukaches, bracelets. Namysto (necklace) was а traditional Ukrainian womanъs adornment. It consisted of several (or several dozens) rows of red or amber corals, supplemented with "dukaches" (golden or silver coins, or plates with relief images) and crosses. In Gutsulshchyna colored Venetian corals were common, as well as "zgarda", or in other words а type of necklace consisting of small brass crosses of delicate work, which had as а rule two or three rows. It is worth mentioning separately that there was also а "sylyanka" (gerdan, drabynka, ochko, luchka, galochka, pupchyky, lanka), or in other words, necklace woven out of small beads or glass-beads ("patsyorky") on а hair basis.

Анатолий, спасибо за чудесную открытку и прекрасные марки!!!

Culture of Ukraine
Ukrainian wedding traditions

Postcard from Germany

The Triumph of Galatea (Fragment), Raphael

Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone (in Italian Raffaello; April 6 or March 28, 1483 – April 6, 1520) was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance, celebrated for the perfection and grace of his paintings and drawings. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.

Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop, and, despite his early death at thirty-seven, a large body of his work remains, especially in the Vatican, whose frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career, although unfinished at his death. After his early years in Rome, much of his work was designed by him and executed largely by the workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality. He was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models.

His career falls naturally into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria, then a period of about four years (from 1504-1508) absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates.

The Triumph of Galatea
Raphael, 1512
295 × 224 cm
Villa Farnesina, Rome

The Triumph of Galatea is a fresco masterpiece completed in 1512 by the Italian painter Raphael for the Villa Farnesina in Rome.

The Farnesina was built for the Sienese banker Agostino Chigi, one of the richest men of that age. The Farnese family later acquired and renamed the villa, smaller than the more ostentatious palazzo at the other side of the Tiber. The fresco is a mythological scene of a series embellishing the open gallery of the building, a series never completed which was inspired to the "Stanze per la giostra" of the poet Angelo Poliziano. In Greek mythology, the beautiful Nereid Galatea had fallen in love with the peasant shepherd Acis. Her consort, one-eyed giant, Polyphemus, after chancing upon the two lovers together, lobbed an enormous pillar and killed Acis.

Raphael did not paint any of the main events of the story. He chose the scene of the nymph's apotheosis (Stanze, I, 118-119). Galatea appears surrounded by other sea creatures whose forms are somewhat inspired by Michelangelo, whereas the bright colors and decoration are supposed to be inspired by ancient Roman painting. At the left, a Triton (partly man, partly fish) abducts a sea nymph; behind them, another Triton uses a shell as a trumpet. Galatea rides a shell-chariot drawn by two dolphins.

While some have seen in the model for Galatea the image of the courtesan, Imperia, Agostino Chigi's lover, Rafael's near-contemporary, the artist and art biographer Giorgio Vasari, wrote that Raphael did not mean for Galatea to resemble any one human person, but to represent ideal beauty. Her gaze is directed upward to heaven, reflecting Platonic love.


понедельник, 9 февраля 2009 г.

Postcard from Hungary

Bread is a staple food prepared by baking a dough of flour and water. It may be leavened or unleavened. Salt, fat and a leavening agent such as yeast are common ingredients, though breads may contain a range of other ingredients: milk, egg, sugar, spice, fruit (such as raisins), vegetables (such as onion), nuts (such as walnuts) or seeds (such as poppy seeds). Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods, dating back to the Neolithic era. The development of leavened bread can probably also be traced to prehistoric times.

Fresh bread is prized for its taste, aroma, freshness and texture. Retaining its freshness is important to keep it appetizing. Bread that has stiffened or dried past its prime is said to be stale. Modern bread is sometimes wrapped in paper or plastic film, or stored in an airtight container such as a breadbox to keep it fresh longer. Bread that is kept in warm, moist environments is prone to the growth of mold. Bread kept at low temperatures, for example, in a refrigerator, will develop mold growth more slowly than bread kept at room temperature. However, unwrapped bread kept in a typical household refrigerator will turn stale quickly due to the low humidity of the air.

The inner, soft part of bread is known to bakers and other culinary professionals as the crumb, which is not to be confused with small bits of bread that often fall off, called crumbs. The outer hard portion of bread is called the crust.

Hungarian or Magyar cuisine is the cuisine characteristic to the nation of Hungary and its primary ethnic group, the Magyars. The traditional Hungarian cuisines dishes are cooked from the ground, using a wide variety of fresh, unpreserved, high quality ingredients, including meats, seasonal vegetables, fruits, fresh bread, cheeses and honey, based on centuries old traditions in spicing and preparation methods.

Hungarians are especially passionate about their soups, desserts and pastries and stuffed pancakes (palacsinta), with fierce rivalries between regional variations of the same dish, (like the Hungarian hot fish soup called Fisherman's Soup or halászlé, cooked differently on the banks of Hungary's two main rivers: the Danube and the Tisza). Other famous Hungarian dishes would be Paprikash (paaprika stew, meat simmered in thick creamy paprika gravy) served with nokedli (small dumplings), Goulash, Gundel Pancake (pancakes served flambéed in dark chocolate sauce filled with ground walnuts) and Dobos Cake (layered sponge cake, with chocolate buttercream filling and topped with a thin caramel slice).

Two remarkable elements of Hungarian cuisine that are hardly noticed by locals, but usually conjure up much enthusiasm amongst foreigners, are different forms of vegetable stews called főzelék as well as cold fruit soups, like cold sour cherry soup (Hungarian: hideg meggyleves).

Meat stews, casseroles, steaks, roasted pork, beef, poultry, lamb or game and the Hungarian sausages (kolbász) and winter salami are a major part of Hungarian cuisine. The mixing of different varieties of meat is a traditional feature of the Hungarian cuisine. Goulash, stuffed peppers, stuffed cabbages or Fatanyéros (Hungarian mixed grill on wooden platter]) can combine beef and pork, and sometimes mutton. In very exclusive dishes fruits like plums and apricots are cooked with meat or in piquant sauces/stuffings for game, roasts and other cuts. Various kinds of noodles and dumplings, potatoes and rice are commonly served as a side dish. The Hungarian cuisine uses a large variety of cheeses, but the most common are túró (a fresh quark cheese), cream cheeses, ewe-chese (juhturó), Emmentaler, Edam and the Hungarian cheese Trappista.

Hungarian cuisine

Postcard from South Africa

The Voortrekker Monument is a monument situated in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. The massive granite structure, built to honour the Voortrekkers (Pioneers) who left the Cape Colony in the thousands between 1835 and 1854, was designed by the architect Gerard Moerdijk who had the ideal to design a "monument that would stand a thousand years to describe the history and the meaning of the Great Trek to its descendants". It can be seen from almost any location in the city, as it is seated on a hilltop.

Official Site

Shinnecock Indian Reservation
Southhampton, Long Island, N.Y.
Indian dancers, from various tribes, doing a ceremonial dance at the Indian Outpost on the Shinnecock Indian Reservation.

Shinnecock Reservation is an Indian reservation for members of the Shinnecock Indian Nation in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York, United States. It lies on the east side of Shinnecock Bay in southeastern Long Island, adjacent to the communities of Southampton, Tuckahoe, and Shinnecock Hills. The population was 504 at the 2000 census.

The reservation is recognized by New York State but not the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs -- a discrepancy which has defined the lines in proposals for the reservation to introduce Indian gaming.

Shinnecock Reservation